# Understanding Variance in Statistics: Definition, Formula, and Properties

Comprehensive Definition, Description, Examples & RulesÂ

Edulyte Maths Lessons

Learn Maths anytime, anywhere

What will you learn

Variance is one of the most important generalities in statistics. It measures how important the values in a dataset differ from the mean or the normal. Understanding variance can help you dissect data, identify patterns, and make informed opinions. In this composition, you will learn what variance is, how to calculate it, and what its parcels and operations are.

## Variance Definition

Variance definition states that it is a measure of dissipation or variability in a dataset. It tells you how far the values are spread around the mean. A high variance indicates that the values are veritably different from each other and the mean. A low variance indicates that the values are analogous to each other and the mean.

Variance is a pivotal measure in data analysis because it can reveal how representative the mean is of the dataset. However, the mean is a good summary of the data, if the variance is below. However, the mean may not reflect the true nature of the data, if the variance is high.

The variance definition makes it clear that itÂ  is applicable in colorful fields similar to finance, wisdom, and engineering. For illustration, in finance, Variance can measure the threat of an investment by showing how much the returns can diverge from the anticipated value. In wisdom, variance can measure the delicacy of a trial by showing how much the results can differ from the thesis. In engineering, variance can measure the quality of a product by showing how important it is to diverge from the specifications.

## The symbol for Variance

The common variance symbol represents Variance is s2 for a sample and Ïƒ2 for a population. A sample is a subset of a population, which is the entire group of interest. The symbols s and Ïƒ are deduced from the Greek letter sigma, which stands for sum.
The variance symbol s2 or Ïƒ2 signifies that variance is calculated by squaring the differences between the values and the mean. The reason for squaring is to exclude negative values and to give further weight to larger diversions.

## Variance Formula

The Variance Formula depends on whether you are dealing with a sample or a population. The general formula for sample Variances:

s2 = n âˆ’1 âˆ‘( x âˆ’ xË‰) 2

The general formula for population Variances is –

Ïƒ2 = N âˆ‘( x âˆ’ Î¼) 2

In both formulas, x represents an individual value in the dataset and n or N represents the number of valuesâ€”the difference between sample and population variance in the symbols for mean and denominator.

The symbol for variance for a sample mean is xÌ„(pronounced bar), which is calculated by dividing the sum of all values by n. The symbol for population mean is Î¼( pronounced mu), which is calculated by dividing the sum of all values by N.

The denominator for sample variance is n- 1, which is also known as the degrees of freedom. This adaptation is made to regard the fact that a sample is not a perfect representation of a population. The denominator for population variance is N, which reflects the entire group of interest.

To illustrate how to use the formula, letâ€™s consider an illustration. Suppose you have a sample of five scholars â€™ test scores 80, 85, 90, 95, and 100. To find the sample Var, you need to follow the way

Find the sample mean by adding all values and dividing by n

xË‰ = 580 85 90 95 100 = 90

Find the difference between each value and the mean, and square it

80 âˆ’90) 2 =( âˆ’10) 2 = 100

85 âˆ’90) 2 =( âˆ’5) 2 = 25

90 âˆ’90) 2 = ( 0) 2 = 0

95 âˆ’90) 2 = ( 5) 2 = 25

100 âˆ’90) 2 = ( 10) 2 = 100

Find the sum of all squared differences

âˆ‘( x âˆ’ xË‰) 2 = 100 25 0 25 100 = 250

Divide the sum by n- 1

s2 = 5 âˆ’1250 = 4250 = 62.5

thus, the sample variance is 62.5.

## How to Find the Variance

Finding the variance manually can be tedious and prone to crimes, especially if you have a large dataset. Fortunately, there are easier ways to find the Variance using technology similar to calculators, spreadsheets, or online tools.

For illustration, if you have a scientific calculator, you can use the following way to find the sample Variance:

Enter the data values into the calculatorâ€™s memory using the STAT mode.

Press SHIFT and also 1 to pierce the STAT menu.

Select 4Variance to pierce the Variance menu.

Select 2s2n- 1 to find the sample Var.

Alternatively, if you have a spreadsheet program similar to Excel, you can use the following way to find the answer to the question â€˜how to find the variance.â€™

Enter the data values into a column or a row in the spreadsheet.

elect an empty cell where you want to display the sample Var.

Type = VAR.S( followed by the range of cells that contain the data values, similar to A1A5.

Press ENTER to calculate the sample Var.

Changing the Variance using technology can save you time and trouble, and also ensure delicacy and thickness. Still, it’s important to understand how the variance is calculated and what it means.

## Variance Equation

The VarianceÂ­ equation is a different meÂ­thod to show the formula for Var. It reveals how varianceÂ­ connects to other mathematical factors likeÂ­ average and standard deviation.

The Variance equation for a sample is

s2 = n âˆ’1 âˆ‘ x2 âˆ’ xË‰2

The Variance equation for a population is

Ïƒ2 = N âˆ‘ x2 âˆ’ Î¼2

In theseÂ­ formulas, x stands for a single data value, while n or N indicateÂ­s the total number of values. TheÂ­ signs xÌ„ and Î¼ mean the averageÂ­ of the sample and the total group, seÂ­parately.

Based on theÂ­ formula for variance, it shows the gap betweÂ­en the averageÂ­’s front number and the normal of squared digits. It signals that both theÂ­ spread and the quantity of the numbeÂ­rs can affect variance.

Think of the varianceÂ­ equation like a map. It reveÂ­als the relationship betweÂ­en variance and another keÂ­y concept: standard deviation. Standard deviation meÂ­asures the scattering or diffeÂ­rence in a set of numbeÂ­rs. It’s like taking the square root of Var. Want to chat in symbols? SureÂ­! When talking about a sample, we useÂ­ ‘s.’ For a whole population, it’s ‘Ïƒ.’

For a sample, the standard deviation equation is –

s = s2 = n âˆ’1 âˆ‘( x âˆ’ xË‰) 2

The standard deviation equation for a population is

Ïƒ = Ïƒ2 = N âˆ‘( x âˆ’ Î¼) 2

## Variance Properties

Variance has some crucial variance properties that affect data interpretation and analysis. These varianceÂ  properties are:

• Variance is never positive. That is because negative values are removed during calculation by squaring the discrepancies between the values and the mean.

• If and only if every value is the same, there is no variance. That indicates that the dataset is free of fluctuation and dissipation.

• Variance is not affected by adding or abating a constant to all values. That means that shifting the dataset by a constant quantum does not change its variability or dissipation.

• Variance is affected by multiplying or dividing all values by a constant. That means that spanning the dataset by a constant factor changes its variability or dissipation proportionally.

• Variance has no upper limit. That means there is no maximum value for variability or dissipation in a dataset.

## Applications of Variance

Variance have numerous real-world operations in different fields such as finance, wisdom, and engineering. Then there are some exemplifications of how Variance can be used in various situations:

• In finance, variance can measure the risk/threat of investment by showing how much the returns can diverge from the anticipated value. A high variance indicates a high threat, while a low variance indicates a lower threat. Investors can use Variance to assess their threat forbearance and diversify their portfolio.

Â

Â

• In science, variance can measure the delicacy of a trial by showing how much the results can differ from the thesis. A low variance indicates a high delicacy, while a high variance indicates a lower delicacy. Scientists can use variance to estimate their experimental design and ameliorate their styles.

Â

Â

• In engineering, variance can measure the quality of a product by showing how important it is to diverge from the specifications. A low variance indicates a high quality, while a high variance indicates a low quality. Masterminds can use Variance to cover their product process and control their quality norms.

Step Up Your Math Game Today!

Free sign-up for a personalised dashboard, learning tools, and unlimited possibilities!

## Key Takeaways

1. In simpler teÂ­rms, variance measures how data points diffeÂ­r within a dataset. It gives an idea of how scatteÂ­red the values areÂ­ from the average.

2. Variance is critical in analyzing data as it shows how weÂ­ll the average reÂ­presents the wholeÂ­ set, lets you contrast various datasets, spot unusual points, and cheÂ­ck how reliable your findings are.

3. DiffereÂ­nce holds key chunks that touch on how we undeÂ­rstand and pick apart info. It’s always plus, zero when values match, doeÂ­sn’t change with addition or subtraction of a steady number across all meÂ­asurements, changes if all numbeÂ­rs are multiplied or divided by a steÂ­ady figure, and has no ceiling.

4. Variance is useÂ­ful in many areas like finance, wisdom, and eÂ­ngineering. HereÂ­, it helps gauge risks, subtlety, quality, and diffeÂ­rent aspects of data.

## Quiz

Check your score in the end

Quiz

Check your score in the end
Question of

#### Question comes here

Some of the crucial properties of Variance are

• Variance is always negative.
• Variance is zero, if all values are identical.
• Variance is not affected by adding or abating a constant to all values.
• Variance is affected by multiplying or dividing all values by a constant.
• Variance has no upper limit.

Numerous online courses are offered that can help you learn further about Variance in statistics. For illustration, you can visit(Edulyte), which offers online courses and tutorials on colorful motifs in mathematics, including Variance. You can also check out other websites. You can also browse online to have an expansive composition on Variance and its operations.

Variance matteÂ­rs in studying data since it shows if the averageÂ­ really speaks for all data points. Yet, theÂ­ average gives a fair data summary wheÂ­n this diversity, or Variance, is minimal. However, the mean may not reflect the true nature of the data, if the Variance is high. Variance can also help you compare and differ different datasets, identify outliers and anomalies, and measure the trustability and validity of your results.

The formula for Variance depends on whether you are dealing with a sample or a population. A sample is a subset of a population, which is the entire group of interest. The formula for sample Variance is

s2 = n âˆ’1 âˆ‘( x âˆ’ xË‰) 2

The formula for population Variance is

Ïƒ2 = N âˆ‘( x âˆ’ Î¼) 2

In both formulas, x represents an individual value in the dataset, and n or N represents the number of values. The symbols xÌ„ and Î¼ represent the sample and population mean, independently. The formulas show that Variance is calculated by squaring the differences between the values and the mean, and also dividing by the number of values or the degrees of freedom.

### Subscribe now for discounts, learning resources, blogs and guides. We do not spam.

PTE Tutorials: Customised Packages for Every Learner

Standard

\$75 AUD

One time