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Binomial distribution

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Demystifying the Binomial Distribution: From Basics to Real-World Applications

Comprehensive Definition, Description, Examples & Rules 

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Introduction to the Binomial Distribution

Binomial distribution is a concept that is related to the distribution of probability. It helps to find out the expected value. The importance of this concept in daily activities makes it more worthy for you. Through this page, you will get to know about the meaning of binomial distribution, its real-life applications, and so on. You can check your understanding of binomial distribution through the worksheet that is given at the end. 

Definition and Significance

A binomial distribution is the distribution of probability that models the probability of obtaining one or two outcomes. It is referred to as discrete probability, with two results: success or failure. For example, if you have taken an exam, then there is a probability of passing or failing. This probability is also referred to as a binomial probability distribution.

Real-world Applications

  • This concept is useful in biology; you can find out the genetic characteristics of a baby.
  • You can find defects and accurate product probabilities.
  • You can measure the probability of spreading disease among the population.
  • This concept is useful in trading. You can find out about the hike in share price.
  • You can find the probability of passing or failing the exam through this concept.

Understanding Binomial Experiments

You can find out about the binomial experiments, success, and failure in the section below.

Criteria for a Binomial Experiment

A binomial experiment has specific criteria that are about probability, like pass or fail, trials, and so on. In further sections, you will learn about these binomial experiments.

Binary Outcomes: Success and Failure

This trail includes the probability of passing or failing. It means one may win or another may lose. For example, in a game, there is a probability of one team winning by losing another team. Similarly, in an exam, there is a probability of passing or failing.

Fixed Number of Trials (n)

A fixed number of trials in a binomial experiment is referred to as (n). That reflects n times of observation of a set. For example, if you have given a test three times to get a high score, So, a binomial experiment in this case would be 3.

Binomial Distribution Parameters

There are various ways of distributing binomial parameters. It includes notions and terminology.

Binomial distribution Notation and Terminology

  • Notion and terminology denote as n. It reflects ‘n’ the number of times you observe something. For example, you have to toss a coin five times; in this case, n will be five.
  • P is the passing probability in the distribution of binomials. Failure is represented with q, which is -1.
  • Failure is represented as q = -1.

Parameters: ‘n’ and ‘p’ (Number of Trials and Probability of Success)

  • Both ‘n’ and ‘p’ are related to each other.
  • Once you raise your observations ‘n’ number of times, it will make a bell curve.
  • If the probability of success, which is referred to as ‘p’, is low in observation ‘n’, then distribution becomes difficult.
  • If the probability of success that is referred to as ‘p’ is high in observation ‘n’, then distribution becomes easy.

The Binomial Distribution Formula

Binomial distribution has a formula for the probability mass function with respect to the observation that is referred to as ‘n’, and the number of times success is referred to as ‘k’.

Probability Mass Function (PMF)

You can calculate the probability of passing and failing using the formula for the probability mass function. You can measure specific success, which is (k), with fixed trails, which are referred to as (n).

  • P(x=k) =  (nk) *pk*(1-p)n-k
  • P(x=k) reflects the probability of achieving success with the ‘n’ number of trials.
  • (nk) is the relationship between success and trial.
  • pk is the success probability.
  • (1-p)n-k is the probability of failure 

Calculating binomial probabilities

You can calculate the probability by using the formula P(x=k) = (nk) *pk*(1-p)n-k. Then you need to calculate (nk); for that, the formula is n!/k!(n-k)! This will help you find success ‘k’ from a number of trials. After that, you need to use the given value in the formula that will help you get an accurate solution.

Using Combinations (n, choose k)

Both ‘n’ and ‘k’ are related to each other. In the event of the unavailability of any of them, it can become difficult for you to arrive at a conclusion. You can make different combinations with numbers easily.

For example, if there are two exam tests, then n will be two, and the probability of passing can be two, which can reflect that k is two.

The combination of n and k helps in getting accurate results. You can find success probability easily. 

Mean (expected value) in Binomial Distribution

Binomial distribution mean

The mean is the sum of observations divided by the total number of observations. In a binomial distribution, it is an expected value. You can find out the probability on an average basis while using the mean.

Mean Calculation in Binomial Distribution

The mean expected value is represented as E(X), and the specific formula to calculate this binomial distribution is E(X) = number of observations * success probability. or we can also say:

E(x)= n*p 

The product of both trials and success probability will provide you with an average probability.

Interpretation of Means in Real-World Scenarios

  • You can find out the defective products by using the expected value formula.
  • It is useful in biology to expect the genetic disorder in a child from parents.
  • You can calculate the trade hike in the stock market by using the expected value.

Variance and Standard Deviation in Binomial Distribution

Definition of Variance and Standard Deviation

  • Binomial distribution variance measures the distribution of data in the distribution of probability. It reflects the deviation of the data from the mean.
  • Standard deviation is the square root of variance. You can find out the distribution of probability by distributing data using the standard deviation method.

Variance Calculation in Binomial Distribution

Var(x) = n.p. (1-p)

Here, 

  • Var is the variance.
  • ‘n’ is the number of fixed observations.
  • ‘p’ is success probability.
  • (1-p) is the probability of failure.

You need to multiply n by p, and then you will get the result.

Standard Deviation Calculation

You need to take a square root of variance, which is σ = √var(x).

  • σ – the standard deviation of the binomial distribution.
  • √var(x) – is the variance square root.

Standard deviations are useful in finding out the variability in regard to probability distribution.

The NP Distribution

N and p are related to each other. Both are useful in finding out the variance and expected value, or average of probability. In the subsequent sections, you will find out their relationship and implications.

Exploring the Relationship Between N and P

The ‘n’ is the fixed observation, and the ‘p’ is the success probability.

  • N is the number of observations that reflect the repetition of observations.
  • Whereas p is the success probability in an observation.

When np is an integer

When n is an integer, it has implications for success probability.

If np=k (here, k reflects the integer), then the success probability in an observation would be the whole number.

For example:

If there are 10 rounds in a game and the passing probability is 0.5, the n.p. would be 10*0.5 =5. You can find that n*p is 5, which is an integer.

Implications of NP distribution

It reduces the variability of the distribution.

  • You can find a curve-shaped distribution.
  • Less distribution, while standard deviations if np will be an integer.

Real-world Applications of the Binomial Distribution

You can find the usage of binomial distribution in daily life. It is used to calculate the expected value. In science and various other sectors, there is a diverse use of binomial distribution.

Examples of Quality Control and Manufacturing

In manufacturing, you can find defective and good-quality products through binomial distribution. After observing the product ‘n’ a number of times, you can find good quality or bad quality products. In which good quality is ‘p’ and bad quality is ‘q’. This will help you increase your manufacturing growth by separating bad-quality products.

Probability of Success in Bernoulli Trials

There are two experiments that pass or fail in Bernoulli trials. There is no effect of one observation on another. Success in the Bernoulli trial would be reflected as ‘p’ and failure as ‘q’.

Here q is (q-1) p

Biased vs. unbiased coin tosses

In a biased coin toss, the success probability would be unequal. There would be an unequal chance of getting heads and tails. On the other hand, the unbiased tosses would be when there would be an equal chance to get the head and tails.

Common Misconceptions and Pitfalls

There are various misconceptions among people in regards to the binomial distribution.

Addressing Common Mistakes in Understanding the Binomial Distribution

  • Sometimes, students confuse the number of fixed observations with success probability. This impacts their solutions.
  • Students confuse the probability of success with a specific success probability. They also get confused with integers, and due to these common mistakes, they have difficulty solving equations.

Misinterpretations of Parameters

  • Sometimes students avoid the impact of the number of observations and the success probability.
  • A wrong answer may impact the curve and probability distribution.

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Key Takeaways

  1. The binomial distribution is a significant concept in calculating the probability distribution.

  2. The binomial distribution concept has various proofs and types of independent probability distributions.

  3. It is useful in practical life for finding out the expected value.

  4. The use of variance and standard deviations makes this concept more relevant.

  5. You can make your binomial distribution concept better by practising on the worksheet that is given on this page.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The fixed number of observations, the probability of passing and failing, and integers are the characteristics of a binomial experiment.

  • What do ‘n’ and ‘p’ represent in the binomial distribution?

The ‘n’ is a fixed number of observations, and the ‘p’ is the probability of success.

You can calculate the probability in a binomial distribution with the binomial distribution formula (nk) *pk*(1-p)n-k.

Variance is helpful in measuring data distribution in probability. Var(x) = n.p. (1-p) is its formula and  It is related to the binomial distribution because it includes the number of fixed observations and success probability in its formula.

There are various misconceptions among the students, like that they confuse the use of n and p at the right place, which impacts their solutions.

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2D Shapes2cosacosb Formula30-60-90 Formulas3D ShapesAbsolute Value FormulaAcute AngleAcute Angle triangleAdditionAlgebra FormulasAlgebra of MatricesAlgebraic EquationsAlgebraic ExpressionsAngle FormulaAnnulusAnova FormulaAnti-derivative FormulaAntiderivative FormulaApplication of DerivativesApplications of IntegrationArc Length FormulaArccot FormulaArctan FormulaArea Formula for QuadrilateralsArea FormulasArea Of A Sector Of A Circle FormulaArea Of An Octagon FormulaArea Of Isosceles TriangleArea Of ShapesArea Under the Curve FormulaArea of RectangleArea of Regular Polygon FormulaArea of TriangleArea of a Circle FormulaArea of a Pentagon FormulaArea of a Square FormulaArea of a Trapezoid FormulaArithmetic Mean FormulaArithmetic ProgressionsArithmetic Sequence Recursive FormulaArithmetic and Geometric ProgressionAscending OrderAssociative Property FormulaAsymptote FormulaAverage Deviation FormulaAverage Rate of Change FormulaAveragesAxioms Of ProbabilityAxis of Symmetry FormulaBasic Math FormulasBasics Of AlgebraBinary FormulaBinomial Probability FormulaBinomial Theorem FormulaBinomial distributionBodmas RuleBoolean AlgebraBusiness MathematicsCalculusCelsius FormulaCentral Angle of a Circle FormulaCentral Limit Theorem FormulaCentroid of a Trapezoid FormulaChain RuleChain Rule FormulaChange of Base FormulaChi Square FormulaCirclesCircumference FormulaCoefficient of Determination FormulaCoefficient of Variation FormulaCofactor FormulaComplete the square formulaComplex numbersCompound Interest FormulaConditional Probability FormulaConeConfidence Interval FormulaCongruence of TrianglesCorrelation Coefficient FormulaCos Double Angle FormulaCos Square theta FormulaCos Theta FormulaCosec Cot FormulaCosecant FormulaCosine FormulaCovariance FormulaCubeCurated Maths Resources for Teachers – EdulyteCylinderDecimalsDifferential calculusDiscover the world of MathsEllipseEquilateral triangleEuler’s formulaEven numbersExponentsFibonacci TheoryFractionFraction to decimalGeometric sequenceHeptagonHyperbolaIntegersIntegrationIntegration by partsLinesLocusMatricesNatural numbersNumber lineOdd numbersParallelogramPercentage formulaPerimeterPolygonPolynomialsPrismProbabilityPyramidPythagoras theoremRoman NumeralsScalene triangleSetsShapes NamesSimple interest formulaSlope formulaSolid shapesSphereSquareStandard deviation formulaSubtractionSymmetryTimeTrianglesTrigonometry formulaTypes of anglesValue of PiVariance formulaVectorVolume formulasVolume of a coneVolume of sphere formulaWhole numbers
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